George “Buck” Saunders

On Sunday afternoon, June 15, 1902, a group of Black coal miners from the Bishop Mine at Borland Station, near Beadling, were drinking beer on their day off. A fight broke out and Russian-born John Markoff, who apparently owned the shanty where the miners drank, was shot three times.

The mining town on Beadling

Left paralyzed, Markoff died on July 1, 1902. Four men, including “Buck” Saunders, were arrested.


Witness and newspaper reports of the killing varied. Some indicated the miners robbed and killed Markoff. Others told of a fight among the miners that Markoff intervened in and was shot.


Still others suggested a racial dynamic, with an argument between the Black miners and Markoff and his white friends.

Pittsburgh Press, October 13, 1902

Saunders was convicted of first-degree murder on October 14, 1902. Though acknowledging his presence at the shooting, his defense was that in the midst of the melee, someone else fired the fatal shot. William Bowden, the only other miner charged in the case, was acquitted.

Saunders was sentenced to death on November 28, 1902.

Pittsburgh Press, November 28, 1902

With lingering doubts about what happened and Saunders’ consistent denials of having fired the fatal shots, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment on December 11, 1903. He was transferred to Western Penitentiary to serve out his sentence.

George “Buck” Saunders died at Mayview State Hospital, very near the site of Markoff’s killing, on July 27, 1925. He was 72 years old.

Author: Bill Lofquist

I am a sociologist and death penalty scholar at the State University of New York at Geneseo. I am also a Pittsburgh native. My present research focuses on the history of the death penalty in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pa. This website is dedicated to collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about all Allegheny County cases in which a death sentence was imposed. Please share any questions or comments, errors or omissions, or other matters of interest related to these cases or to the broader history of the death penalty in Allegheny County.

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